The incretin hormones are gut hormones that amplify nutrient-induced insulin secretion in response to meal intake. Incretin peptides, principally Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), regulate islet hormone secretion, glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, gut motility, appetite and body weight, and immune function, providing a scientific basis for utilizing incretin-based therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are attractive options for the treatment of T2DM as they effectively reduce glycaemia and weight while posing a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Some GLP-1 RAs also have documented beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, chronic kidney disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

1 Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of incretin hormone action. Cell Metab. 2013.